A/W - an abbreviation for
Acetate - a transparent
sheet placed over artwork allowing
the artist to write instructions
or indicate where second color
is to be placed. See Overlay.
Air - an amount of white
space in a layout.
Align - to line up typeset
or other graphic material as specified,
using a base or vertical line as
the reference point.
Anti-aliasing - The rendering
of hard-edged objects so they blend
smoothly into the background. A
technique for merging object-oriented
art into bitmaps.
Apron - additional white
space allowed in the margins of
text and illustrations when forming
Art paper - a smooth coated
paper obtained by adding a coating
of china clay compound on one or
both sides of the paper.
A general term used to describe
photographs, drawings, paintings,
hand lettering, and the like prepared
to illustrate printed matter.
Ascender - any part of
a lower case letter extending above
the x-height. For example, the
upper half of the vertical in the
letters b or h.
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange. A standard format
for representing digital information
in 8-bit pieces.
Alterations - changes
made to the copy by the author
after typesetting but not including
those made as a result of errors
in keying in the copy.
Autoflow - in some computer
applications, the ability to flow
text automatically from one page
to another, or one column to another.
Backing up - to print the
second side of printed sheet. Also,
to make a duplicate of a computer
file as a precaution against losing
Back matter - also known
as end matter
Banding - A visible stair-stepping
of shades in a gradient.
Bank - a lightweight writing
Banner - a large headline
or title extending across the full
Bar code - a pattern of
vertical lines of varying thickness
identifying details of a product,
conforming to the Universal Product
Base artwork - artwork
requiring additional components
such as halftones or line drawings
to be added before the reproduction
Base film - the basic material
for contact film in platemaking
for photomechanical reproduction,
to which film positives are stripped.
Baseline - the line on
which the bases of capital letters
curves - In object-oriented
programs, (such as Freehand,
Illustrator, or Photoshop)
a curve whose shape is defined
by points set along its arc.
BF - abbreviation
for bold face.
Bibliography - list of
publications providing reference
material on a particular subject,
usually included in the endmatter
of a book.
Binding - the various methods
used to secure loose leaves or
sections in a book; eg saddle-stitch,
An image formed (or appearing to
be formed) by a rectangular grid
of pixels. The computer assigns
a value to each pixel, from one
bit of information (black or white),
to as much as 24 or 30 bits per
pixel for full color images. Also
used to refer to an image that
has too low of a resolution or
linescreen for the output resolution
("That image looks bitmapped.";
line art scanned at 72dpi when
it is to be printed at 2540dpi
will be very coarsely bitmapped).
Bitmapped font - a font
made up of bitmapped letters, characterized
by jagged edges, as opposed to
the smooth edges of an outline
Blanket - a sheet made
of rexine or rubber that covers
the impression cylinder of a press.
Blanket cylinder - the
cylinder via which the inked litho
plate transfers the image to the
paper. The cylinder is covered
with a rubber sheet which prevents
wear to the litho plate coming
into contact with the paper.
layout, type or pictures that extend
1/8" beyond the trim marks on a
page. Illustrations that spread
to the edge of the paper without
margins are referred to as 'bled
Blind emboss - a raised
impression made without using ink
Blind folio - page number
counted for reference or identification
but not printed on the page itself.
Blow up - an enlargement,
most frequently of a graphic image
Blurb - a short description
or commentary of a book or author
on a book jacket.
Blueline proof -
a proof made from the actual printing
plates, so-called because of its
blue color. A chance to get one
more look at a printing job before
it goes to the press.
Board - paper of more than
Body - the main text of
the work but not including headlines.
Bold type - type with a
heavier darker appearance. Most
typefaces have a bold face.
Bond - a sized finished
writing paper of 50gsm or more.
Can also be used for printing upon.
Border - a continuous decorative
design or rule surrounding the
matter on the page.
Box - a section of text
marked off by rules or white space
and presented separately from the
main text and illustrations. Longer
boxed sections in magazines are
sometimes referred to as sidebars.
Bronzing - an effect produced
by dusting wet ink after printing
with a metallic powder.
Bullet - a large dot preceding
text to add emphasis.
Calibration bars - On a
negative, proof, or printed piece,
a strip of tones used to check
Caliper - the thickness
of sheet of paper or board expressed
in microns (millionths of a metre).
Also the name of the tool used
to make the measurement.
ready - artwork or
pasted up material that is
ready for reproduction.
Cap line - an imaginary
line across the top of capital
letters. The distance from the
the cap line to the baseline is
the cap size.
Caps - (or "all caps")
an abbreviation for capital letters.
Caps and small caps - a
style of type that shows capital
letters used in the normal way
while the body copy is set in capital
letters which are of a slightly
Caption - Also called a
cutline. The line or lines of text
that refer to information identifying
a picture or illustration.
paper coated with chemicals and
dye which will produce copies without
carbon paper. Also referred to
as NCR (No Carbon Required).
Caret marks - an indication
to the printer of an ommission
in the copy indicated as ( ) showing
Case bound -
a hardback book made with stiff
outer covers. Cases are usually
covered with cloth, vinyl or leather.
Cast coated - art paper
with a exceptionally glossy coated
finish usually on one side only.
Cellulose acetate - plastic
sheet material, usually transparent
or translucent, available clear
or colored and with a shiny or
matte finish; used as the basis
of artwork and overlays, and is
the base material of some photographic
Chalking - a powdering
effect left on the surface of the
paper after the ink has failed
to dry satisfactorily due to a
fault in printing.
a method of altering the thickness
of a shape by overexposure in processing
or by means of a built-in option
in some computer applications.
a fast proofing systm which uses
powder as opposed to ink.
Close up - a proof correction
mark to reduce the amount of space
between characters or words indicated
cyan, yellow, magenta, black. The
subtractive primaries, or process
colors, used in color printing.
Black (K) is usually added to enhance
color and to print a true black.
See subtractive primaries, four
printing papers which after making
have had a surface coating with
clay etc, to give a smoother, more
even finish with greater opacity.
Collate - to gather separate
sections or leaves of a book together
in the correct order for binding.
Color correction - The
process of adjusting an image to
compensate for scanner deficiencies
or for the characteristics of the
Color proof - A representation
of what the final printed composition
will look like. The resolution
and quality of different types
of color can vary greatly.
separations - The division
of an image into its component
colors for printing. Each color
separation is a piece of negative
or positive film. Four color
or process separations result
in 4 pieces of film (CMYK);
Spot color separations result
in 1 piece of film for each
transparency - A photographic
image transparent film used
as artwork. 35 mm, 4"x5" and
8"x10" formats are commonly
Column rule - a light faced
vertical rule used to separate
columns of type.
The assembling of characters into
words, lines, and paragraphs of
text or body matter type for reproduction
fold - a method of
folding in which each fold
opens in the opposite direction
to its neighbour, giving a
concertina or pleated effect.
a style of typeface in which the
characters have a vertically elongated
Continuous tone - an image
in which the subject has continuous
shades of color or gray without
being broken up by dots. Continuous
tones cannot be reproduced in that
form for printing but must be screened
to translate the image into dots.
Contrast - the relationship
between the lightest and darkest
areas of an image.
The text to be printed.
Crop marks -
lines printed showing the dimensions
of the final printed page. These
marks are used for final trimming.
the elimination of parts of a photograph
or other original that are not
required to be printed. Cropping
allows the remaining parts of the
image to be enlarged to fill the
Cursive - used to describe
typefaces that resemble written
Cut flush - a method of
trimming a book after the cover
has been attached to the pages.
also called a caption. The line
or lines of text that refer to
information identifying a picture
Cutout - a halftone where
the background has been removed
to produce a silhouette.
Dagger and double dagger -
symbols used mainly as reference
marks for footnotes.
Dampening - a necessary
process in lithography of dampening
the printing plate to prevent ink
Dark field illumination -
a method of checking the quality
of halftone dots on film by viewing
them in angled light against a
Sometimes called an ³em² dash.
A horizontal rule used for punctuation.
DCS - Desktop Color Separation.
A file format which creates five
PostScript files for each color
Deep-etch halftone - a
halftone image from which unwanted
screen dots have been removed,
so that areas of plain paper will
be left on the printed sheet.
Densitometer - A device
sensitive to the density of light
transmitted or reflected by paper
or film. Used to check the accuracy,
quality, and consistency of output.
Density - The degree of
opacity of a photographic image
on paper or film.
Descender - any part of
a lower case letter that extends
below the x-height, as in the case
of y and j.
Die - a hardened steel
engraving stamp used to print an
inked image. Used in the production
of good quality letter headings.
Cutting - The process of
using sharp steel rules to cut
special shapes into printed sheets.
Files for printing that are produced
on the computer.
Disk Operating System (DOS) -
software for computer systems with
disk drives which supervises and
controls the running of programs.
The operating system is 'booted'
into the computer from disk by
a small program which permanently
resides in the memory. Commom operating
systems include MS-DOS, PC-DOS
(IBM's version of MS-DOS), CP/M
(an operating system for older,
8-bit computers), Unix and BOS.
type - larger type used for
headings etc. Normally about
18 point or larger.
Dithering - The process
of specifying color to adjacent
pixels in order to simluate a third
color in a bitmapped image. This
technique is generally used whan
a full range of colors is not available.
Dmax - The highest level
of density on a film negative.
gain - A printing defect
in which dots print larger than
intended, causing darker colors
or tones; due to the spreading
of ink on stock. The more absorbent
the stock, the more dot gain.
Can vary by type of ink as well.
Dot matrix printer - a
printer in which each character
is formed from a matrix of dots.
They are normally impact systems,
ie a wire is fired at a ribbon
in order to leave an inked dot
on the page, but thermal and electro-erosion
systems are also used.
DPI - Dots
per inch. A measure of output resolution
produced by printers, imagesetters,
page spread - two facing
pages of newspaper or magazine
where the textual material on
the left hand side continues
across to the right hand side.
Abbreviated to DPS.
Downloadable fonts - type
faces which can be stored on a
disk and then downloaded to the
printer when required for printing.
These are, by definition, bit-mapped
fonts and, therefore, fixed in
size and style.
Drawn on - a method of
binding a paper cover to a book
by drawing the cover on and gluing
to the back of the book.
cap - a large initial letter
at the start of the text that
drops into the line or lines
of text below.
Dry transfer (lettering) -
Characters, drawings, etc, that
can be transferred to the artwork
by rubbing them off the back of
the transfer sheet. Best known
a sketch of a page showing the
position of text and illustrations
and giving general instructions.
Dye transfer - a photographic
color print using special coated
papers to produce a full color
image. Can serve as an inexpensive
Electronic publishing -
a generic term for the distribution
of information which is stored,
transmitted and reproduced electronically.
Teletext and Videotext are two
examples of this technology in
its purest form, ie no paper..
Desktop publishing forms just one
part of the electronic publishing
Elliptical dot - A type
of halftone screen dot with an
elliptical rather than circular
shape, which sometimes produces
better tonal gradations.
Em - a fixed
space equal in size to the chosen
point size. It gets its name from
the letter M which originally was
as wide as the type size.
Em dash -
a dash used in punctuation the
length of one em.
A process performed after printing
to stamp a raised (or depressed)
image into the surface of paper,
using engraved metal embossing
dies, extreme pressure, and heat.
Embossing styles include blind,
deboss and foil-embossed.
Emulsion - The coating
of light-sensitive material on
a piece of film.
En dash -
a dash approximately half the width
of an em dash.
En - a fixed
space that is half as wide as an
End papers - the four page
leaves at the front and end of
a book which are pasted to the
insides of the front and back covers
EPS - Enapsulated
PostScript. A file format used
to transfer PostScript image information
from one program to another. The
preferred file format for saving
images, as it is resolution independent,
as opposed to TIFF.
A price provided to a customer,
based on the specifications outlined
on the estimate form. It is normally
sent prior to entry of an order
and prices may change if the order
specifications are not the same
as the estimate specifications.
Expanded type - a typeface
with a slightly wider body giving
a flatter appearance.
Face - an abbreviation
for typeface referring to a family
in a given style.
Filler - extra material
used to complete a column or page,
usually of little importance.
Film negative - A piece
of film with a reversed image,
in which dark areas appear clear
or white, and vice versa.
Flag - the designed title
of a newspaper as it appears at
the top of page one.
Floppy disk - (see disk)
Flush left - copy aligned
along the left margin.
Flush right - copy aligned
along the right margin.
Flyer - an inexpensively
produced circular used for promotional
Stamping -The process of
applying a thin film of colored
foil to paper for decorative
or typeface. A complete set of
characters in a typeface.
process - The four
basic colors of ink (CMYK - yellow,
magenta, cyan, and black) which
reproduce full-color photographs
French fold - a sheet which
has been printed on one side only
and then folded with two right
angle folds to form a four page
Full measure - a line of
type set to the entire line length.
Galley proof - proofs taken
from the galleys before being made
up into pages.
an oversize page where both sides
fold into the gutter in overlapping
layers. Used to accommodate maps
Gathering - the operation
of inserting the printed pages,
sections or signatures of a book
in the correct order for binding.
Gothic - typefaces with
no serifs and broad even strokes.
screen - A smooth transition
between black and white, one
color and another, or color
and the lack of it.
a range of luminance values for
evaluating shading through white
to black. Also, a term used when
referring to a black and white
Greeking - a software device
where areas of gray are used to
simulate lines of text.
Grid - A systematic division
of a page into areas to enable
designers to ensure consistency.
The grid acts as a measuring guide
and shows text, illustrations and
GSM - Grams per square
metre. The unit of measurement
for paper weight.
Guard - a narrow strip
of paper or linen pasted to a single
leaf to allow sewing into a section
the central blank area between
left and right pages.
rule - the thinnest rule
that can be printed. Hairline
rules do not print well. Half-point
rules are strongly recommended.
Hairlines - the thinnest
of the strokes in a typeface.
Half up - artwork one and
a half times the size which it
will be reproduced.
an illustration reproduced by breaking
down the original tone into a pattern
of dots of varying size. Light
areas have small dots and darker
areas or shadows have larger dots.
Simulating a continuous tone photograph
Halftone screen - Traditionally,
a glass plate or film placed between
the original photograph and the
film to be exposed. The screen
carries a network of parallel lines.
The number of lines to the inch
controls the coarseness of the
final dot formation. The screen
used depends on the printing process
and the paper to be used, the higher
the quality the more lines can
Hanging punctuation - punctuation
that is allowed to fall outside
the margins instead of staying
within the measure of the text.
This is now seldom used in desktop
Hard disk - a rigid disk
sealed inside an airtight transport
mechanism. Information stored may
be accessed more rapidly than on
floppy disks and far greater amounts
of data may be stored.
Hardback - a case bound
book with a separate stiff board
Head - the larger bold
text at the top of a page.
Helvetica - a sans serif
Hickies - a dust particle
sticking to the printing plate
or blanket which appears on the
printed sheet as a dark spot surrounded
by an halo.
Highlight - the lightest
area in a photograph or illustration.
Icons - pictorial images
used on screen to indicate utility
functions, files, folders or applications
software. The icons are generally
activated by an on-screen pointer
controlled by a mouse or trackball.
Imagesetter - A device
used to output a computer image
or composition at high resolution
onto photographic paper or film.
refers to the arrangement of pages
on a printed sheet, which when
the sheet is finally printed on
both sides, folded and trimmed,
will place the pages in their correct
Imprint - the name and
place of the publisher and printer
required by law if a publication
is to be published. Sometimes accompanied
by codes indicating the quantity
printed, month/year of printing
and an internal control number.
Insert - an instruction
to the printer for the inclusion
of additional copy.
ISBN - International Standard
Book Number. A reference number
given to every published work.
Usually found on the back of the
Italic - type with sloping
Ivory board - a smooth
high white board used for business
Justify - the alignment
of text along a margin or both
margins. This is achieved by adjusting
the spacing between the words and
characters as necessary so that
each line of text finishes at the
Keep standing - to hold
type or plates ready for reprints.
Kerning - the adjustment
of spacing between certain letter
pairs, A and V for example, to
obtain a more pleasing appearance.
Keyline - an outline drawn
or set on artwork showing the size
and position of an illustration
Kilobyte (K, KB) - 1024
bytes, a binary 1,000.
Knockout - A shape or object
printed by eliminating (knocking
out) all background colors. Contrast
Kraft paper - a tough brown
paper used for packing.
Laid - paper with a watermark
pattern showing the wire marks
used in the paper making process.
Usually used for high quality stationery.
Laminate - a thin transparent
plastic coating applied to paper
or board to provide protection
and give it a glossy finish.
LAN - Local Area Network.
A group of connected computers
in a relatively small area that
share access to printers and other
Landscape - work in which
the width used is greater than
the height. Also used to indicate
the orientation of tables or illustrations
which are printed 'sideways'. See
Laser printer (see also Page
printer) - a high quality
image printing system using a
laser beam to produce an image
on a photosensitive drum. The
image is transferred on to paper
by a conventional xerographic
Lateral reversal - a positive
or negative image transposed from
left to right as in a mirror reflection
of the original.
Layout - a sketch of a
page showing the position of text
and illustrations and giving general
instructions. More commonly referred
to as ³layout dummy² or ³dummy.²
Lead or leading - Space
added between lines of type to
space out text and provide visual
separation of the lines. Measured
in points or fractions therof.
Named after the strips of lead
which used to be inserted between
lines of metal type.
Legend - the descriptive
matter printed below an illustration,
mostly referred to as a cutline
or caption. Also an explanation
of signs or symbols used in timetables
Letraset - a proprietary
name for rub-down or dry transfer
lettering used in preparing artwork.
Letterpress - a relief
printing process in which a raised
image is inked to produce an impression;
the impression is then transferred
by placing paper against image
and applying pressure.
Letterset - a printing
process combining offset printing
with a letterpress relief printing
Letterspacing - the addition
of space between the letters of
words to increase the line-length
to a required width or to improve
the appearance of a line.
Library picture - a picture
taken from an existing library
and not specially commissioned.
Also referred to as ³clipart.²
Ligature - letters which
are joined together as a single
unit of type such as oe and fi.
Lightface - type having
finer strokes than the medium typeface.
Not used as frequently as medium.
Line Copy -
Any copy that is solid black with
no gradations in tone and is suitable
for reproduction without using
a halftone screen.
Linen tester - a magnifying
glass designed for checking the
dot image of a halftone.
Lines per inch (lpi) -
a measure of the frequency of a
halftone screen (usually ranging
from 55-200). 150 lpi is the standard
printing resolution. Fewer lines
per inch are often used for printing
on newsprint or low quality paper.
Lining figures - numerals
that align on the baseline and
at the top.
Linotype - manufacturers
of a range of high resolution phototypesetting
machines such as the 100, 202,
300 and 500. The 100, 300 and 500
series are capable of processing
PostScript files through an external
RIP and typesetting desktop publishing
files direct from disk at 1270dpi
Lithography - a printing
process based on the principle
of the natural aversion of water
to grease. The photographically
prepared printing plate when being
made is treated chemically so that
the image will accept ink and reject
Logo - short for logotype.
A word or combination of letters
set as a single unit. Also used
to denote a specially styled company
name designed as part of a corporate
Look-up table (LUT) - The
table of colors a computer can
display at a given time. The computer
uses the table to approximate the
desired color from the range it
Loose leaf - a method of
binding which allows the insertion
and removal of pages for continuous
Lower case - the small
letters in a font of type.
Luminosity - A value corresponding
to the brightess of color.
Machine glazed (MG) - paper
with a high gloss finish on one
Macro - a series of instructions
which would normally be issued
one at a time on the keyboard to
control a program. A macro facility
allows them to be stored and issued
automatically by a single keystroke.
Magnetic ink - a magnetized
ink that can be read both by humans
and by electronic machines. Used
in check printing.
Making ready - the time
spent in making ready the level
of the printing surface by packing
out under the forme or around the
Manilla - A tough brown
paper used to produce stationery
and wrapping paper.
Manuscript (MS) - the original
written or typewritten work of
an author submitted for publication.
Margins - the non printing
areas of page.
Mark up - copy prepared
for a compositor setting out in
detail all the typesetting instructions.
Mask - Traditionally, opaque
material or masking tape used to
block-off an area of the artwork;
the inactive area of a bitmapped
image which will not respond to
Masthead - details of publisher
and editorial staff usually printed
on the contents page.
Matt art - a coated printing
paper with a dull surface.
Measure - denotes column
width, expressed in picas.
Mechanical binding - a
method of binding which secures
pre-trimmed leaves by the insertion
of wire or plastic spirals through
holes drilled in the binding edge.
Megabyte (M, MB) - one
Memory - the part of the
computer which stores information
for immediate access. Nowadays
this consists exclusively of RAM,
random access memory, which holds
the applications software and data
or ROM, read only memory, which
holds permanent information such
as the DOS bootstrap routines.
Memory size is expressed in K or
Menu-driven - programs
which allow the user to request
functions by choosing from a list
Metallic ink - printing
inks which produce an effect gold,
silver, bronze or metallic colors.
MG (Machine glazed) - paper
with a high gloss finish on one
Mock-up - or layout dummy.
The rough visual of a publication
Modem (MOdulator-DEModulator) -
a device for converting digital
data into audio signals and back
again. Primarily used for transmitting
data between computers over telephone
Modern - refers to type
styles introduced towards the end
of the 19th century. Times roman
is a good example of modern type.
Moire pattern - the result
of superimposing half-tone screens
at the wrong angle thereby giving
a chequered effect on the printed
Monitor calibration - The
process of correcting the color
settings of a monitor to match
selected colors of printed output.
Monochrome - A black and
white display with no gray tones.
Monospace - a font in which
all characters occupy the same
amount of horizontal width regardless
of the character.
Montage - a single image
formed from the assembling of several
Mouse - a handheld pointing
device using either mechanical
motion or special optical techniques
to convert the movement of the
user's hand into movements of the
cursor on the screen. Generally
fitted with one, two or three buttons
which can control specific software
MS (Manuscript) - the original
written or typewritten work of
an author submitted for publication.
Having or reproducing the light
parts of the original subject as
dark areas and the dark parts as
light areas. The negatives are
used to create a blueline.
Newsprint - Unsized, low
quality, absorbent paper used for
Nipping - a stage in book
binding where after sewing the
sheets are pressed to expel air.
Object-oriented - A type
of drawing that defines an image
mathematically rather than as pixels
in a bitmap (vector-based as opposed
Oblique stroke - (/)
Offprint - a run-on or
reprint of an article first published
in a magazine or journal.
Plates - A method in
which the plate or cylinder
transfers an ink image to an
offset or transfer roller,
which then transfers the image
Oldstyle (US) - a style
of type characterised by stressed
strokes and triangular serifs.
An example of an oldstyle face
Onion skin - a translucent
lightweight paper used in air mail
Opacity - term used to
describe the degree to which paper
will show print through.
Optical center - a point
above the true centre of the page
which will not appear 'low' as
the geometric centre does.
Orphan - line of type on
its own at the top or bottom of
OU Red -
PMS 200 or 201. (See Pantone Matching
System) A dark scarlet red. 201
is more maroon than 200.
Outline - a typeface in
which the characters are formed
with only the outline defined rather
than from solid strokes.
Computer image transferred to color
proof, paper, film, or temporary
plate material by an imagesetter
Overlay - a transparent
sheet used in the preparation of
multi-color artwork showing the
Overprinting - printing
over an area already printed. Contrast
Overs - additional paper
required to compensate for spoilage
in printing. Also used to refer
to a quantity produced above the
number of copies ordered.
Overstrike - a method used
in word processing to produce a
character not in the typeface by
superimposing two separate characters,
eg $ using s and l.
Ozalid - a trade name to
describe a method of copying page
proofs from paper or film.
Page proof -
Initial impression of a page pulled
for checking purposes before the
job is sent to the image assembly
PageMaker - a common desktop
Pagination - the numbering
of pages in a book.
Matching System - a registered
name for an ink color matching
system, usually abbreviated PMS.
Paragraph mark - a type
symbol used to denote the start
of a paragraph.
Parallel fold - a method
of folding; eg two parallel folds
will produce a six page sheet.
Paste up - the various
elements of a layout mounted in
position on pasteboard to form
camera-ready artwork. Now seldom
used in the era of desktop publishing.
binding -An inexpensive
bookbinding technique in which
the pages are glued rather
than sewn to the cover and
used primarily for paperbacks,
small manuals, phone books,
Perfector - a printing
press which prints both sides of
the paper at one pass through the
Pi fonts - characters not
usually included in a font, but
which are added specially. Examples
of these are timetable symbols
and mathematical signs.
Pica - a printing industry
unit of measurement. There are
12 points to a pica. Originally,
one pica was approximately 0.166in.
Now, in the era of computerization,
a pica is 1/6 of an inch.
Picking - the effect of
ink being too tacky and lifting
fibres out of the paper. Shows
up as small white dots on areas
of solid color.
Pigment - Particles that
absorb and reflect light and appear
colored to our eyes; the substance
that gives ink its color.
Pixel - The smallest distinct
unit of a bitmapped image displayed
on a screen.
PMS - Pantone
Matching System. A commonly used
system for identifying specific
Point - In measuring a
paperıs caliper, one point equals
a thousandth of an inch. In typography,
it is the smallest unit of measurement
used principally for designating
type size, one point approximating
1Z72 of an inch and 12 points equaling
Portrait - an upright image
or page where the height is greater
than the width.
Positive - a true photographic
image of the original made on paper
Posterization - the deliberate
constraint of a gradation into
visible steps as a special effect.
PostScript - a page description
language developed by Adobe Systems.
Widely supported by both hardware
and software vendors it represents
the current 'standard' in the market.
Press proof - a copy obtained
from inked type, plate, block or
screen for checking purposes; a
reasonably accurate sample of how
a finished piece is intended to
look. Also, to check for consistency
Primary colors - cyan,
magenta and yellow. These three
colors when mixed together with
black will produce a reasonable
reproduction of all other colors.
colors - See four color process.
coordinator - A person
who follows the print job through
every step of the process and
in general acts as a liaison
between Printing Services and
Progressives - color proofs
taken at each stage of printing
showing each color printed singly
and then superimposed on the preceding
To read and mark typesetting corrections
in written matter.
Proofreading marks - a
standard set of signs and symbols
used in copy preparation and to
indicate corrections on proofs.
Marks are placed both in the text
and in the margin with a line connecting
Proportional spacing -
a method of spacing whereby each
each character is spaced to accommodate
the varying widths of letters or
figures, so increasing readability.
Books and magazines are set proportionally
spaced, typewritten documents are
QuarkXpress - The industry
standard typesetting and page layout
program. Highly recommended.
Quire - 1/20th of a ream
Rag paper - high quality
stationery made from cotton rags.
Ragged left/right - successive
lines of type which are of unequal
length and which are aligned at
either the right or left hand column.
Right - Typesetting style
that is characterized by lines
that end in unequal length, usually
lined up flush on one side or
the other example
Rasterization - The process
of converting mathematical and
digital information (vector commands)
into a series of dots by an output
Raster image processor (RIP) -
the hardware engine which calculates
the bit-mapped image of text and
graphics from a series of instructions.
Most RIPs operate on PostScript.
500 sheets of paper.
right hand book page (usually odd
numbered), more significant than
the reverse side, which is called
Registration marks - small
cross-hairs on film used in the
alignment of negatives.
Register - the correct
positioning of an image especially
when printing one color on another.
Reflective art - Artwork
prepared so that it may be photographed
or input into a computer by scanner.
Reflective densitometer -
Instrument used to measure the
density on paper.
the measurement used in typesetting
to express quality of output. Measured
in dots per inch, the greater the
number of dots, the more smoother
and cleaner appearance the character/image
will have. Currently laser printers
print at 300-1,200dpi. Imagsetters
usually print at 1,270-5,080 dpi.
Rest in proportion (RIP) -
an instruction when giving sizes
to artwork or photographs that
other parts of the artwork are
to be enlarged or reduced in proportion.
Retouching - a means of
altering artwork or color separations
to correct faults or enhance the
Reverse out - to reproduce
as a white image out of a solid
Revise - indicates the
stages at which corrections have
been incorporated from earlier
proofs and new proofs submitted.
Eg First revise, second revise.
RGB - red,
green, blue. The additive primary
colors used for computer monitor
displays; also a color model. Cannot
be used for printing. All RGB files
must be changed to CMYK to be printed.
Right reading - a positive
or negative which reads from left
Roman - type which has
vertical stems as distinct from
italics or oblique which are set
Rosette - The pattern created
when all four color halftone screens
are placed at the traditional angles.
Rotary press - a web or
reel fed printing press which uses
a curved printing plate mounted
on the plate cylinder.
Rough - a preliminary sketch
of a proposed design (see also, ³Dummy² and ³Layout
Royal - a size of printing
paper 20in x 25in (508 x 635mm).
Ruler - rulers displayed
on the sreen that show measures
in inches, picas or millimeters.
Runaround (see also Text wrap) -
the ability within a program to
run text around a graphic image
within a document, without the
need to ajust each line manually.
Running head - a line of
type at the top of a page which
repeats a heading.
S/S (Same size) - an instruction
to reproduce to the same size as
stitching - a method
of binding where the folded
pages are stitched through
the spine from the outside,
using wire staples. Usually
limited to 64 pages size.
Sans serif - a typeface
that has no serifs (small strokes
at the end of main stroke of the
character). Helvetica, Geneva,
and Arial are examples of sans-serif
Saturation - the amount
of gray in a color. The higher
the gray content, the lower the
Scale - the means within
a program to reduce or enlarge
the amount of space an image will
occupy. Some programs maintain
the aspect ratio between width
and height whilst scaling, thereby
Scaling - a means of calculating
the amount of enlargement or reduction
necessary to accommodate a photograph
within the area of a design.
Scanner - a digitizing
device using light sensitivity
to translate a picture or typed
text into a pattern of dots which
can be understood and stored by
Using a scanner to digitize images
to be manipulated, output or stored
on a computer.
Screen angles - the angles
used to offset the different films
in process color separations. Proper
screen angles are critical to minimize
Screen frequency - the
number of lines or dots per inch
on a halftone screen.
Section - a printed sheet
folded to make a multiple of pages.
Security paper - paper
incorporating special features
(dyes, watermarks etc) for use
Serif - a small cross stroke
at the end of the main stroke of
Set size - the width of
the type body of a given point
Set solid - type set without
leading (line spacing) between
the lines. Type is often set with
extra space; eg 9 point set on
Set off - the accidental
transfer of the printed image from
one sheet to the back of another.
Sheet - a single piece
of paper. In poster work refers
to the number of Double Crown sets
in a full size poster.
Sheet fed - a printing
press which prints single sheets
of paper, not reels.
Sheetwise - a method of
printing a section. Half the pages
from a section are imposed and
printed. The remaining half of
the pages are then printed on the
other side of the sheet.
Show-through - see opacity.
Side stabbed or stitched -
the folded sections of a book are
stabbed through with wire staples
at the binding edge, prior to the
covers being drawn on.
Side heading - a subheading
set flush into the text at the
Sidebar - a vertical bar
positioned usually on the right
hand side of the screen.
a letter or figure printed on the
first page of each section of a book
and used as a guide when collating
Sixteen sheet - a poster
size measuring 120in x 80in (3050mm
Size - a solution based
on starch or casein which is added
to the paper to reduce ink absorbency.
Slurring - a smearing of
the image, caused by paper slipping
during the impression stage.
Small caps - a set of capital
leters which are smaller than standard
and are equal in size to the lower
case letters for that typesize.
Snap-to (guide or rules) -
a WYSIWYG program feature for accurately
aligning text or graphics. The
effect is exercised by various
non-printing guidelines such as
column guides, margin guides which
automatically places the text or
graphics in the correct position
flush to the column guide when
activated by the mouse. The feature
is optional and can be turned off.
Soft back/cover - a book
bound with a paper back cover.
Soft dot - a type of dot
in a halftone screen whose edge
is not smoothly circular. This
can create a fuzzier image. Contrast
with hard dot.
Soft or discretionary hyphen -
a specially coded hyphen which
is only displayed when formatting
of the hyphenated word puts it
at the end of a line.
Spell check - a facility
contained in certain word processing
and page makeup programs to enable
a spelling error check to be carried
out. Should be used as an adjunct
to proofreading, not a replacement
Spine - the binding edge
at the back of a book.
Spot Color - A second
color, usually in addition to black,
to add color to your printed piece.
The ink is usually Pantone
Matching System (PMS) consisting of
named or numbered colors. PMS is
generally accepted throughout the
printing and graphic arts industry
as the standard.
SRA - a paper size in the
series of ISO international paper
sizes slightly larger than the
A series allowing the printer extra
space to bleed.
Stat - photostat copy.
Stem - the main vertical
stroke making up a type character.
used in proof correction work to
cancel a previous correction. From
the Latin; 'let it stand'.
Strap - a subheading used
above the main headline in a newspaper
Strawboard - a thicker
board made from straw pulp, used
in bookwork and in the making of
envelopes and cartons. Not suitable
Strike-through - the effect
of ink soaking through the printed
the preparation and assembling of
prior to platemaking.
Style sheet - a collection
of tags specifying page layout
styles, paragraph settings and
type specifications which can be
set up by the user and saved for
use in other documents.
Subscript - the small characters
set below the normal letters or
Subtractive primaries -
The inks (cyan, magenta, and yellow)
used in process-color printing
to create different colors. In
contrast to additive primaries,
these produce darker colors when
Supercalendered paper -
a smooth finished paper with a
polished appearance, produced by
rolling the paper between calenders.
Examples of this are high gloss
and art papers.
Superscript - the small
characters set above the normal
letters or figures.
Surprint (US) - (see Overprinting)
printing over a previously printed
area of either text or graphics.
Swash letters - italic
characters with extra flourishes
used at the beginning of chapters.
Swatch - a color sample.
11² x 17² - a page half the size
of a broadsheet, or twice the size
of a sheet of standard typing paper.
Tabular setting - text
set in columns such as timetables.
Tags - the various formats
which make up a style sheet- paragraph
settings, margins and columns,
page layouts, hyphernation and
justification, widow and orphan
control and automatic section numbering.
Template - a standard layout
usually containing basic details
of the page dimensions.
Text wrap - see Runaround.
Text - the written or printed
material which forms the main body
of a publication.
Text type - typefaces used
for the main text of written material.
Generally no larger than 14 point
Thin space - the thinnest
space normally used to separate
Thirty two sheet - a poster
size measuring 120in x 160in (3048mm
Threaded or chained (US) -
Thumbnails - the first
ideas or sketches of a designer
noted down for future reference.
TIFF - a common format
for scanned photographs, generally
associated with grayscale photos
or bitmap line art.
Tint - the effect of adding
white to a solid color or of screening
a solid area.
Tip in - the separate insertion
of a single page into a book either
during or after binding by pasting
Tone line process - the
process of producing line art from
a continuous tone original.
Toolbox - an on screen
mouse operated facility that allows
the user to choose from a selection
of 'tools' to create simple goemetric
shapes- lines, boxes, circles etc.
and to add fill patterns.
Transmissive densitometer -
Instrument used to measure the
coverage of exposed film.
Transparency - a full color
photographically produced image
on transparent film.
a prepress technique which allows
for variation in registration during
the press run. This is done primarily
by allowing an overlap between
Trash can (US) - the icon
selected for the deleting of files
the cutting of the finished product
to the correct size. Marks are
incorporated on the printed sheet
to show where the trimming is to
Twin wire - paper which
has an identical smooth finish
on both sides.
Typeface - A complete set
of characters forming a family
in a particular design or style.
Typescript - a typed manuscript.
Typo (US) - an abbreviation
for typographical error. An error
in the typeset copy.
Typographer - a specialist
in the design of printed matter,
and in particular the art of typography.
Typography - the design
and planning of printed matter
U & lc - an abbreviation
for UPPER and lower case.
UCR - Undercolor Removal.
A technique for reducing the amount
of magenta, yellow, and cyan in
neutral areas and replacing them
with an appropriate amount of black.
Universal Copyright Convention
(UCC) - gives protection
to authors or originators of
text, photographs or illustrations
etc, to prevent use without permission
or acknowledgment. The publication
should carry the copyright mark,
the name of the originator and
the year of publication.
a finishing process whereby a transparent
varnish is applied over the printed
sheet to produce a glossy finish.
Vellum - the treated skin
of a calf used as a writing material.
The name is also used to describe
a thick creamy book paper.
Vertical justification -
the ability to ajust the interline
spacing (leading) and manipulation
of text in fine increments to make
columns and pages end at the same
point on a page.
Vignette - a small illustration
in a book not enclosed in a definite
Watermark - an impression
incorporated in the paper making
process showing the name of the
paper and/or the company logo.
Web - a continuous roll
of printing paper used on web-fed
Weight - the degree of
boldness or thickness of a letter
WF - an abbreviation for
'wrong fount'. Used when correcting
proofs to indicate where a character
is in the wrong typeface.
Widow - a single word left
on the last line of a paragraph
which falls at the top of a page.
Window - A solid black
area in a pasteup or electronic
document where a photograph or
line art will be inserted in the
Wire - the wire mesh used
at the wet end of the paper making
process. The wire determines the
textures of the paper.
Wire stitching - see saddle
or side stitching.
Woodfree paper - made from
chemical pulp only with size added.
Supplied calendered or supercalendered.
Word break - the division
of a word at the end of a line.
Word wrap - in word processing,
the automatic adjustment of the
number of words on a line of text
to match the margin settings. The
carriage returns set up by this
method are termed "soft", as against "hard" carriage
returns resulting from the return
key being pressed.
Work and turn - a method
of printing where pages are imposed
in one forme or assembled on one
film. One side is then printed
and the sheet is then turned over
and printed from the other edge
using the same forme. The finished
sheet is then cut to produce two
Work and tumble - a method
of printing where pages are again
imposed together. The sheet is
then printed on one side with the
sheet being turned or tumbled from
front to rear to print the opposite
Wove - a finely textured
paper without visible wire marks.
(pronounced "wizzeewig") - used
to describe systems that preview
full pages on the screen with text
and graphics. The term can however
be a little misleading due to difference
in the resolution of the computer
screen and that of the page printer.
X-height - the height of
a letter excluding the ascenders
and descenders; eg 'x', which is
also height of the main body.
Xerography - a photocopying/printing
process in which the image is formed
using the electrostatic charge
principle. The toner replaces ink
and can be dry or liquid. Once
formed, the image is sealed by
heat. Most page printers currently
use this method of printing.